250 & 600 MW SUB-CRITICAL PFC UNIT
The Institute has state-of-the-art, high fidelity, dynamic, full scope replica Simulators of 250 MW & 600 MW generating units. Routine Plant start up / shut down operations, cold-warm-hot start-ups, coasting down from full load to a lower load, handling plant emergencies and engineering analysis and some functional/maintenance aspects of major plant equipment’s are the salient features of the installed simulator. A Simulator is widely used for training of Operators/Engineers who gain quickly experience in normal, abnormal and emergency operation of a Power Plant. After two week training Engineer/Operator is capable to work in control room and also can handle the emergencies.
At present the throughout the world power industry a drive has taken for the construction of bigger size fossil power plants with sophisticated integrated control system. For reliable efficient operation and safety of these power plants we need well-trained skilled human resources.
Simulation means imitation of any real life conditions of any activity and the conditions are artificially created to show the trainees, so that they are acquainted with the real life situation. A Power Station Training Simulator is a unique tool for training of Power Plant Engineers / Operators by creating a scenario of any process through Real Time / Fast Time / Slow Time execution of various systems on a computer. It consists of a set of programs that computes the mathematical equations that governs the dynamic behavior of the simulated plant, in real time. It gives the feeling of operating a real power plant without incurring any generation loss or damaging any plant equipment. Normally a Simulator is widely used for:-
- Trainees are quickly experienced in normal, abnormal and emergency operation of a Power Plant.
- It is an advanced hands-on training tool, used mainly for plant operation staff training in areas e.g. unit start-up, shutdown, load operation, emergency handling etc.
- It can also be used for any Research & Development purpose.
- It provides a highly realistic environment to the trainees for increasing their confidence to run the Plant with better efficiency and less downtime.
- A well-trained operator runs a Power Plant safely and profitably.
In brief we can say, Advantage of the simulator training:-
- Highly efficient learning
- No fuel cost on account of training
- No wastage of equipment time
- Risk free training
- High retention level to 90%
- Improved sharpness on skills & reflexes.
- Test Bed – as fault analysis of plant, design review & studies, C & I systems evaluation & operation procedures.
System architecture: –
This JIPT 250 MW and 600 MW OTS (Operator Training Simulator) Model System architecture represents the setup of system e.g.
- Instructor Station
- Engineering Station
- Operator Station
The purpose of instructor station is to facilitate the instructor with all the necessary training features required to conduct training.The instructor station allows the instructor to run the models on the simulation computers.
This is the machine which would host the models running. Usually with big models it is imperative to distribute the models on more than one simulation machine. In such a case the instructor station performs the additional task of running one or more sub models.
These are the operator consoles from where the operator (Trainee) would control the plant operation.These will be enabled with operator (Trainee) features like trend and alarms display. The graphic display shall be identical in layout with the real plant DCS with features of pop up (face-plate) on click of controllable object.
The Uni-Sim model is capable of simulating the following operations:
- Normal steady-state and load transient operation.
- Start-up operations from cold conditions (ambient)/warm conditions/hot conditions to full load conditions
- Normal shutdown operation
- Emergency operation
In addition to the above operations, the system is capable of simulating operations dictated by process disturbances and equipment failures introduced by the instructor. The following sections define the modeling conventions, generalities and specifics that will be used to create the process models for the dynamic simulator.
Programmable Logic Control (PLC) is there for interfacing between Soft panels & Hard Panels:
All the Computers, PLC and Hard Panels are connected through Local Area Network (LAN). In real Plant we have individual equipments whereas in Simulator there are software calculated dynamics based on all the data of the individual equipments, which is called ENGINEERING-SERVER.
It provides the necessary alarms and protective system. The math models define all the processes and interlocks of the unit. Any inputs from the soft panel are scanned at a very fast rate and transmitted to the Control Room by the PLC (Input/output system) through a high-speed data link. The Computer in accordance with the math models calculate the output parameters and effects are displayed on OWS (Operator Work Station).
LAN (Local Area Network) is used for interconnection among Instructor Station, Engineering Server, Work Station, PLC and Printer.
Full-Size Replica Control Room:
The control room exactly similar that of the actual plant of 250 MW unit no 1 of Jindal Thermal Power Plant, Tamnar, Raigarh Chattisgarh. All the PC, LVS, HMI, switches, push buttons, indicating lamps, Recorders, and annunciations are located precisely at the position on the Simulator control panel as in the real plant.
Operational Features of Simulator:
To utilize the potential of the Simulator to a maximum, several special functions are provided to the Instructor. These functions can be used as and when required from a device known as the Instructor station.
“An Unique Feature Is Incorporated In This Simulator; Individual Trainee Can Operate The Unit Separately From Zero Level To Full Load Without Hampering Others Job”.
Some other features are described below:
Initial Conditions: A training session on the simulator needs not always be started from the cold state of the plant. A number of plant conditions are available from which a session can be started. These different conditions of the plant from which training is initiated are known as Initial conditions. Here unlimited Initial conditions are available.
Snapshot: Instructors use this facility to store all the data pertaining to a particular plant conditions in the Initial conditions. All the process parameters, annunciations etc. are stored, so that this particular Initial condition can be exactly recreated when required.
FOD (Field Operating Device): This facility is used for local system line up. The trainee can request the instructor for carrying out local operations (simulated) just as he would instruct local area operator in the real plant. After activation of any FOD dynamic change can be seen in the Graphic.
Freeze: In the course of training, it is often necessary for the instructor to explain certain procedures or clear trainee’s doubts. The FREEZE facility allows the instructor to the literally FREEZE all operation by the click of a button. When the simulator is in the FREEZE mode, all dynamic changes stop and no operation can be carried out. All operations can be executed again after removal of Freeze.
Fast Time / Slow Time / Step Time: Normally the simulated plant proceeds in real time. By ‘Real time’ it is meant that the time taken for any event to happen on the simulator would be exactly similar to the time taken for the same event to happen on the real plant.
The Instructor, however, has the discretion to deviate from real time if he finds it beneficial for training. In Fast Time mode, certain plant processes like turbine metal heating, vacuum pulling occurs at ten times faster than normal. This facility allows considerable saving training time.
In slow time mode, the entire plant operation and response gets slowed down to a rate ten times slower than normal. This facility is particularly useful in the study and analysis of transient conditions, sudden fluctuations in parameters, unit trip sequence etc.
Backtrack: – As the trainees carry out operations on the simulator, the computer is constantly recording the same. At any moment of time, a record of the past four hours operation at the interval of two minutes is available to the computer. The instructor can, with the Backtrack facility, take the simulator back in time to any past condition up to the last four-hour. This helps greatly in the analysis of trainee’s performance.
Process Upsets : – The simulator is an invaluable aid for training personnel to handle fault conditions and emergencies. The instructor can inject these malfunctions without the knowledge of the operator. The action of the operator viz. how fast he suspects some abnormality, how quickly he succeeds in tracing the root cause, what remedial measures he takes and how much effect it has on the plant, can be noted and assessed. Here approx.200 malfunctions are available. Any malfunction can be introduced with percentage of severity and delay & ramp time for delay in operation of malfunction. Malfunctions are inserted either from Simulator Diagram or from Malfunction Index. Malfunction Summary displays how many Malfunctions have been inserted.
Trend: – The trend display provides a method of tracking the process values for series of flow, level and temperature of a specific process points.
Event Monitor: – The event monitor provides a listing of all actions that have taken place during the course of the simulation.
Scenario: – The newly created scenario is stored with the model and can be played during a training session or incorporated into a more complex training exercise.